Biotechnology and Health Sciences Biotechnology and Health Sciences Biotech Health Sci http://www.Biotech-health.com 2383-0271 2383-028X 10.5812/bhs en jalali 2017 5 27 gregorian 2017 5 27 2 2
en 10.17795/bhs-28253 Serological Methods to Confirm Expression of Coat Protein Gene From an Iranian Isolate of Cucumber Mosaic Virus in Escherichia coli Serological Methods to Confirm Expression of Coat Protein Gene From an Iranian Isolate of Cucumber Mosaic Virus in <italic>Escherichia coli</italic> research-article research-article Conclusions

This is the first report of expression of CMV CP gene in Iran, which is important for the preparation of anti-CMV antibody and paving the way for the use of the virus coat protein as a nanomaterial.

Results

The identity of the expressed protein was confirmed by immunoassays such as western blot, Dot-Immunobinding Assay (DIBA) and Enzyme-Linked Immunosorbent Assay (ELISA) by the use of anti-CMV antibody.

Materials and Methods

Coat Protein (CP) gene cDNA from an isolate (B13) of Cucumber Mosaic Virus (CMV) was subcloned from pTZ57RCMVCP to pET21a expression vector and transformed to E. coli strain Rosetta. Expression of CMV CP was successful and confirmed by Sodium Dodecyl Sulfate Polyacrylamide Gel Electrophoresis (SDS-PAGE), wherein a ~30- kDa protein band was revealed. Induction by Isopropyl-Thiogalactoside (IPTG) at final concentrations of 0.5 to 2 mM appeared to produce similar results as to the amount of the expressed protein, which was judged by intensity of the band on SDS-PAGE.

Objectives

To this end, our aim was to express the CMV CP gene in E. coli to be used as the antigen for antibody production in the future.

Background

Cucumber mosaic virus (CMV) has isometric particles with a diameter of about 28 - 29 nm. Detection and prevention are the critical steps in the control of plant viruses. Detection in a large number of samples is still done by serological methods due to their robustness and perhaps low cost.

Conclusions

This is the first report of expression of CMV CP gene in Iran, which is important for the preparation of anti-CMV antibody and paving the way for the use of the virus coat protein as a nanomaterial.

Results

The identity of the expressed protein was confirmed by immunoassays such as western blot, Dot-Immunobinding Assay (DIBA) and Enzyme-Linked Immunosorbent Assay (ELISA) by the use of anti-CMV antibody.

Materials and Methods

Coat Protein (CP) gene cDNA from an isolate (B13) of Cucumber Mosaic Virus (CMV) was subcloned from pTZ57RCMVCP to pET21a expression vector and transformed to E. coli strain Rosetta. Expression of CMV CP was successful and confirmed by Sodium Dodecyl Sulfate Polyacrylamide Gel Electrophoresis (SDS-PAGE), wherein a ~30- kDa protein band was revealed. Induction by Isopropyl-Thiogalactoside (IPTG) at final concentrations of 0.5 to 2 mM appeared to produce similar results as to the amount of the expressed protein, which was judged by intensity of the band on SDS-PAGE.

Objectives

To this end, our aim was to express the CMV CP gene in E. coli to be used as the antigen for antibody production in the future.

Background

Cucumber mosaic virus (CMV) has isometric particles with a diameter of about 28 - 29 nm. Detection and prevention are the critical steps in the control of plant viruses. Detection in a large number of samples is still done by serological methods due to their robustness and perhaps low cost.

Methods;Cloning;Expression;Gene;Escherichia coli Methods;Cloning;Expression;Gene;Escherichia coli http://www.Biotech-health.com/index.php?page=article&article_id=28253 Afshin Rostami Afshin Rostami Plant Protection Department, University of Zanjan, Zanjan, IR Iran; Plant Protection Department, University of Zanjan, Zanjan, IR Iran. Tel/Fax: +98-2632238529 Plant Protection Department, University of Zanjan, Zanjan, IR Iran; Plant Protection Department, University of Zanjan, Zanjan, IR Iran. Tel/Fax: +98-2632238529 Nemat Sokhandan Bashir Nemat Sokhandan Bashir Plant Protection Department, University of Tabriz, Tabriz, IR Iran Plant Protection Department, University of Tabriz, Tabriz, IR Iran Davood Koolivand Davood Koolivand Plant Protection Department, University of Zanjan, Zanjan, IR Iran Plant Protection Department, University of Zanjan, Zanjan, IR Iran Mohammad Hajizadeh Mohammad Hajizadeh Plant Protection Department, University of Kurdistan, Sanandaj, IR Iran Plant Protection Department, University of Kurdistan, Sanandaj, IR Iran
en 10.17795/bhs-27547 Bee Venom Induces Unfolded Protein Response in A172 Glioblastoma Cell Line Bee Venom Induces Unfolded Protein Response in A172 Glioblastoma Cell Line brief-report brief-report Background

Glioblastoma is a type of brain tumor with poor response to available therapies, and shows high rate of mortality. Despite remarkable advancements in our knowledge about cytogenetic and pathophysiologic features of glioblastoma, current treatment strategies are mainly based on cytotoxic drugs; however, these therapeutic approaches are facing progressive failure because of the resistant nature of glioblastomas. In the recent years, however, promising results have emerged owing to targeted therapies toward molecular pathways within cancerous cells. Unfolded Protein Response (UPR) is a remarkable signaling pathway that triggers both apoptosis and survival pathways within cells, and therefore induces UPR-related apoptotic pathways in cancer cells by ER stress inducers.

Objectives

Recently, the role of Bee venom (Bv), which contains powerful bioactive peptides, in inducing UPR-related apoptosis was revealed in cancer cell lines. Nevertheless, currently there are no reports of Bv potential ability in induction of UPR apoptotic routes in glioblastoma. The aim of current study was to evaluate possible role of Bee venome in inducing of UPR pathway within A172 glioblastoma cell line.

Materials and Methods

We treated the A172 glioblastoma cell line with different Bv doses, and assessed UPR-related genes expression by real-time Polymerase Chain Reaction (PCR).

Results

The IC50 of Bv for the studied cell line was 28 μg/mL. Furthermore, we observed that Bv can induce UPR target genes (Grp94 and Gadd153) over-expression through a dose-dependent mechanism.

Conclusions

Our results suggest the potential role of Bv as a therapeutic agent for glioblastomas.

Background

Glioblastoma is a type of brain tumor with poor response to available therapies, and shows high rate of mortality. Despite remarkable advancements in our knowledge about cytogenetic and pathophysiologic features of glioblastoma, current treatment strategies are mainly based on cytotoxic drugs; however, these therapeutic approaches are facing progressive failure because of the resistant nature of glioblastomas. In the recent years, however, promising results have emerged owing to targeted therapies toward molecular pathways within cancerous cells. Unfolded Protein Response (UPR) is a remarkable signaling pathway that triggers both apoptosis and survival pathways within cells, and therefore induces UPR-related apoptotic pathways in cancer cells by ER stress inducers.

Objectives

Recently, the role of Bee venom (Bv), which contains powerful bioactive peptides, in inducing UPR-related apoptosis was revealed in cancer cell lines. Nevertheless, currently there are no reports of Bv potential ability in induction of UPR apoptotic routes in glioblastoma. The aim of current study was to evaluate possible role of Bee venome in inducing of UPR pathway within A172 glioblastoma cell line.

Materials and Methods

We treated the A172 glioblastoma cell line with different Bv doses, and assessed UPR-related genes expression by real-time Polymerase Chain Reaction (PCR).

Results

The IC50 of Bv for the studied cell line was 28 μg/mL. Furthermore, we observed that Bv can induce UPR target genes (Grp94 and Gadd153) over-expression through a dose-dependent mechanism.

Conclusions

Our results suggest the potential role of Bv as a therapeutic agent for glioblastomas.

Glioblastoma;A172 Cell Line;Unfolded Protein Response;Bee Venom Glioblastoma;A172 Cell Line;Unfolded Protein Response;Bee Venom http://www.Biotech-health.com/index.php?page=article&article_id=27547 Ali Bazi Ali Bazi Cancer Molecular Pathology Research Center, Faculty of Medicine, Imam Reza Hospital, Mashhad University of Medical Sciences, Mashhad, IR Iran; Faculty of Allied Medical Sciences, Zabol University of Medical Sciences, Zabol, IR Iran; Faculty of Allied Medical Sciences, Zabol University of Medical Sciences, Zabol, IR Iran. Tel/Fax: +98-5432232166 Cancer Molecular Pathology Research Center, Faculty of Medicine, Imam Reza Hospital, Mashhad University of Medical Sciences, Mashhad, IR Iran; Faculty of Allied Medical Sciences, Zabol University of Medical Sciences, Zabol, IR Iran; Faculty of Allied Medical Sciences, Zabol University of Medical Sciences, Zabol, IR Iran. Tel/Fax: +98-5432232166 Mehran Gholamin Mehran Gholamin Division of Human Genetics, Immunology Research Center, Avicenna Research Institute, Mashhad University of Medical Sciences, Mashhad, IR Iran Division of Human Genetics, Immunology Research Center, Avicenna Research Institute, Mashhad University of Medical Sciences, Mashhad, IR Iran Mohsen Sisakht Mohsen Sisakht Department of Biochemistry, Faculty of Medicine, Mashhad University of Medical Sciences, Mashhad, IR Iran Department of Biochemistry, Faculty of Medicine, Mashhad University of Medical Sciences, Mashhad, IR Iran Mohammad Reza Keramati Mohammad Reza Keramati Cancer Molecular Pathology Research Center, Faculty of Medicine, Imam Reza Hospital, Mashhad University of Medical Sciences, Mashhad, IR Iran Cancer Molecular Pathology Research Center, Faculty of Medicine, Imam Reza Hospital, Mashhad University of Medical Sciences, Mashhad, IR Iran
en 10.17795/bhs-28781 Acute Severe Pancreatitis in Pregnancy Masquerading as Partial Hemolysis Elevated Liver enzymes Low Platelet (HELLP) Syndrome Acute Severe Pancreatitis in Pregnancy Masquerading as Partial Hemolysis Elevated Liver enzymes Low Platelet (HELLP) Syndrome case-report case-report Conclusions

Termination of pregnancy was performed as it would save the patient’s life in either deteriorated acute severe pancreatitis or HELLP.

Case Presentation

A 17-year-old female with 27 weeks of gestation presented mild acute pancreatitis. Based on the criteria of persistent Systemic Inflammatory Response Syndrome (SIRS) she subsequently developed severe pancreatitis. Bilirubin 2.2 mg/dL, lactate dehydrogenase 2171 IU/L and platelet of 53000 mm3 after 48 hours of the onset of pain, also indicated the possibility of partial HELLP syndrome. However, the results of the differential diagnosis ruled out the presence of Disseminated Intravascular Coagulation (DIC), Thrombotic Thrombocytopenic Purpura (TTP), Systemic Lupus Erythematosus (SLE) and Anti phospholipids syndrome. We terminated her pregnancy due to the above-mentioned diagnoses and postponed the cholecystectomy.

Introduction

Acute severe pancreatitis may result in biochemical abnormalities resembling those seen in Hemolysis Elevated Liver enzymes Low Platelet (HELLP) Syndrome.

Conclusions

Termination of pregnancy was performed as it would save the patient’s life in either deteriorated acute severe pancreatitis or HELLP.

Case Presentation

A 17-year-old female with 27 weeks of gestation presented mild acute pancreatitis. Based on the criteria of persistent Systemic Inflammatory Response Syndrome (SIRS) she subsequently developed severe pancreatitis. Bilirubin 2.2 mg/dL, lactate dehydrogenase 2171 IU/L and platelet of 53000 mm3 after 48 hours of the onset of pain, also indicated the possibility of partial HELLP syndrome. However, the results of the differential diagnosis ruled out the presence of Disseminated Intravascular Coagulation (DIC), Thrombotic Thrombocytopenic Purpura (TTP), Systemic Lupus Erythematosus (SLE) and Anti phospholipids syndrome. We terminated her pregnancy due to the above-mentioned diagnoses and postponed the cholecystectomy.

Introduction

Acute severe pancreatitis may result in biochemical abnormalities resembling those seen in Hemolysis Elevated Liver enzymes Low Platelet (HELLP) Syndrome.

Pancreatitis;Syndrome;Pregnancy Pancreatitis;Syndrome;Pregnancy http://www.Biotech-health.com/index.php?page=article&article_id=28781 Talat Dabaghi Talat Dabaghi Department of Gynecology and Obstetrics, Qazvin University of Medical Sciences, Qazvin, IR Iran Department of Gynecology and Obstetrics, Qazvin University of Medical Sciences, Qazvin, IR Iran Mona Shariati Mona Shariati Department of Gynecology and Obstetrics, Qazvin University of Medical Sciences, Qazvin, IR Iran Department of Gynecology and Obstetrics, Qazvin University of Medical Sciences, Qazvin, IR Iran Masoumeh Dadashaliha Masoumeh Dadashaliha Department of Gynecology and Obstetrics, Qazvin University of Medical Sciences, Qazvin, IR Iran Department of Gynecology and Obstetrics, Qazvin University of Medical Sciences, Qazvin, IR Iran Mousa Talebi Bakhshayesh Mousa Talebi Bakhshayesh Velayat Clinical Research Development Unit, Qazvin University of Medical Sciences, Qazvin, IR Iran Velayat Clinical Research Development Unit, Qazvin University of Medical Sciences, Qazvin, IR Iran Ali Zargar Ali Zargar Velayat Clinical Research Development Unit, Qazvin University of Medical Sciences, Qazvin, IR Iran; Velayat Clinical Research Development Unit, Qazvin University of Medical Sciences, Qazvin, IR Iran. Tel: +98-2833760620, Fax: +98-2833790611 Velayat Clinical Research Development Unit, Qazvin University of Medical Sciences, Qazvin, IR Iran; Velayat Clinical Research Development Unit, Qazvin University of Medical Sciences, Qazvin, IR Iran. Tel: +98-2833760620, Fax: +98-2833790611
en 10.17795/bhs-26201 Encouragement to be More Physically Active or to Lessen Sedentary Behavior; Are These Two as the Same? Encouragement to be More Physically Active or to Lessen Sedentary Behavior; Are These Two as the Same? research-article research-article Conclusions

Overweight and obese children may consume more energy according to the international recommendations. In parallel with this, they experience more sedentary behavior, as well. In this situation, planning to decrease their sedentary behavior is at greater priority.

Results

There was a significant difference between physical activity and screen time according to Relative Body Mass Index (RBMI), gender and grade (P ≤ 0.001). Pearson’s correlation test discovered a positive association between Weekly Screen Time (WST) and Daily Physical Activity (DPA) (r ≈ 0.37, P ≤ 0.001). In the regression model, children’s screen time explained only about 13% of change in body mass index.

Background

There are a considerable number of published studies that strongly support the benefits of physical activity in children, and to achieve such benefits, guidelines recommend children to participate in at least 60 minutes of physical activity every day. There is a vicious cycle between low physical activity and increased body mass index.

Objectives

The aim of this study was to assess daily physical activity and sedentary behavior in overweight and obese children.

Patients and Methods

In this descriptive analytical study, 300 overweight and obese children were recruited to assess their daily physical activity, energy expenditure and screen times with standard techniques. Distribution of these variables was examined according to their demographic characteristics. Using Pearson’s correlation test and linear regression the predictor effect between these variables was discovered.

Conclusions

Overweight and obese children may consume more energy according to the international recommendations. In parallel with this, they experience more sedentary behavior, as well. In this situation, planning to decrease their sedentary behavior is at greater priority.

Results

There was a significant difference between physical activity and screen time according to Relative Body Mass Index (RBMI), gender and grade (P ≤ 0.001). Pearson’s correlation test discovered a positive association between Weekly Screen Time (WST) and Daily Physical Activity (DPA) (r ≈ 0.37, P ≤ 0.001). In the regression model, children’s screen time explained only about 13% of change in body mass index.

Background

There are a considerable number of published studies that strongly support the benefits of physical activity in children, and to achieve such benefits, guidelines recommend children to participate in at least 60 minutes of physical activity every day. There is a vicious cycle between low physical activity and increased body mass index.

Objectives

The aim of this study was to assess daily physical activity and sedentary behavior in overweight and obese children.

Patients and Methods

In this descriptive analytical study, 300 overweight and obese children were recruited to assess their daily physical activity, energy expenditure and screen times with standard techniques. Distribution of these variables was examined according to their demographic characteristics. Using Pearson’s correlation test and linear regression the predictor effect between these variables was discovered.

Physical Activity;Child;Obesity;Students Physical Activity;Child;Obesity;Students http://www.Biotech-health.com/index.php?page=article&article_id=26201 Kazem Hosseinzadeh Kazem Hosseinzadeh Faculty of Nursing and Midwifery, Qazvin University of Medical Sciences, Qazvin, IR Iran Faculty of Nursing and Midwifery, Qazvin University of Medical Sciences, Qazvin, IR Iran Shamsaddin Niknami Shamsaddin Niknami Department of Health Education, Faculty of Medicine, Tarbiat Modares University, Tehran, IR Iran; Department of Health Education, Faculty of Medicine, Tarbiat Modares University, Tehran, IR Iran. Tel: +98-2182883549 Department of Health Education, Faculty of Medicine, Tarbiat Modares University, Tehran, IR Iran; Department of Health Education, Faculty of Medicine, Tarbiat Modares University, Tehran, IR Iran. Tel: +98-2182883549 Alireza Hidarnia Alireza Hidarnia Department of Health Education, Faculty of Medicine, Tarbiat Modares University, Tehran, IR Iran Department of Health Education, Faculty of Medicine, Tarbiat Modares University, Tehran, IR Iran
en 10.17795/bhs-28414 Study of the Epidemiological Features and Clinical Manifestations of the Preceding Epidemic of Influenza A (H1N1) as a Guide for Dealing With the 2015 Outbreak in the Qazvin Province, Iran Study of the Epidemiological Features and Clinical Manifestations of the Preceding Epidemic of Influenza A (H1N1) as a Guide for Dealing With the 2015 Outbreak in the Qazvin Province, Iran research-article research-article Background

In 2009, a pandemic associated with a new type of influenza A virus (H1N1) affected many countries worldwide. After five years of silence, in 2015 we encountered another outbreak of H1N1 influenza A.

Objectives

The present study aimed to study the epidemiological and clinical features of this disease in the cold and dry climate of Qazvin province, Iran in the last epidemic, during 2009.

Patients and Methods

This was a cross-sectional study in which the demographic characteristics and clinical manifestations of confirmed cases of influenza A virus (H1N1) in the province of Qazvin were investigated. The definite diagnosis of cases was performed using real time Polymerase Chain Reaction (PCR) on oropharyngeal washing specimens from adults and throat swabs from children and severely ill patients.

Results

During the time course between July to December 2009, 76 confirmed cases of influenza A (H1N1) were discovered in the province of Qazvin. The mean age of patients was 25.67 ± 16.9 years. The most affected people were students and housewives. Coughing was found to be the most common clinical symptom (96.1%) followed by fever (92.1%), myalgia (48.5%), and diarrhea and vomiting (34.2%). In laboratory confirmed patients, 62 were hospitalized and two cases deceased. Regarding the total population of the Qazvin province (1,100,000), the rate of hospitalization was calculated at 5.42 per 100,000 individuals, with a mortality rate of 0.175 per 100,000 individuals (3.2% of hospitalized cases).

Conclusions

Concerning the higher prevalence of disease in younger age groups, and more severe disease in high-risk groups, including overweight patients and pregnant women, the authors recommend special attention to clinical symptoms such as diarrhea and vomiting, cough, myalgia and fever in patients with cold symptoms. Also, for severely ill patients, the allocation of adequate intensive care units should be of prime importance.

Background

In 2009, a pandemic associated with a new type of influenza A virus (H1N1) affected many countries worldwide. After five years of silence, in 2015 we encountered another outbreak of H1N1 influenza A.

Objectives

The present study aimed to study the epidemiological and clinical features of this disease in the cold and dry climate of Qazvin province, Iran in the last epidemic, during 2009.

Patients and Methods

This was a cross-sectional study in which the demographic characteristics and clinical manifestations of confirmed cases of influenza A virus (H1N1) in the province of Qazvin were investigated. The definite diagnosis of cases was performed using real time Polymerase Chain Reaction (PCR) on oropharyngeal washing specimens from adults and throat swabs from children and severely ill patients.

Results

During the time course between July to December 2009, 76 confirmed cases of influenza A (H1N1) were discovered in the province of Qazvin. The mean age of patients was 25.67 ± 16.9 years. The most affected people were students and housewives. Coughing was found to be the most common clinical symptom (96.1%) followed by fever (92.1%), myalgia (48.5%), and diarrhea and vomiting (34.2%). In laboratory confirmed patients, 62 were hospitalized and two cases deceased. Regarding the total population of the Qazvin province (1,100,000), the rate of hospitalization was calculated at 5.42 per 100,000 individuals, with a mortality rate of 0.175 per 100,000 individuals (3.2% of hospitalized cases).

Conclusions

Concerning the higher prevalence of disease in younger age groups, and more severe disease in high-risk groups, including overweight patients and pregnant women, the authors recommend special attention to clinical symptoms such as diarrhea and vomiting, cough, myalgia and fever in patients with cold symptoms. Also, for severely ill patients, the allocation of adequate intensive care units should be of prime importance.

Influenza A Virus, H1N1 Subtype;Comorbidity;Epidemiology Influenza A Virus, H1N1 Subtype;Comorbidity;Epidemiology http://www.Biotech-health.com/index.php?page=article&article_id=28414 Behzad Bijani Behzad Bijani Department of Infectious Diseases, Faculty of Medicine, Qazvin University of Medical Sciences, Qazvin, IR Iran Department of Infectious Diseases, Faculty of Medicine, Qazvin University of Medical Sciences, Qazvin, IR Iran Reza Qasemi Barqi Reza Qasemi Barqi Department of Infectious Diseases, Faculty of Medicine, Qazvin University of Medical Sciences, Qazvin, IR Iran Department of Infectious Diseases, Faculty of Medicine, Qazvin University of Medical Sciences, Qazvin, IR Iran Ali Asghar Pahlevan Ali Asghar Pahlevan Department of Microbiology, Faculty of Medicine, Qazvin University of Medical Sciences, Qazvin, IR Iran; Department of Microbiology, Faculty of Medicine, Qazvin University of Medical Sciences, Qazvin, IR Iran. Tel: +98-2813326032, Fax: +98-2813326033 Department of Microbiology, Faculty of Medicine, Qazvin University of Medical Sciences, Qazvin, IR Iran; Department of Microbiology, Faculty of Medicine, Qazvin University of Medical Sciences, Qazvin, IR Iran. Tel: +98-2813326032, Fax: +98-2813326033 Mohammad Reza Sarokhani Mohammad Reza Sarokhani Department of Biotechnology, Faculty of Paramedical Sciences, Qazvin University of Medical Sciences, Qazvin, IR Iran Department of Biotechnology, Faculty of Paramedical Sciences, Qazvin University of Medical Sciences, Qazvin, IR Iran Shiva Leghaie Shiva Leghaie Division of Health Deputy, Qazvin University of Medical Sciences, Qazvin, IR Iran Division of Health Deputy, Qazvin University of Medical Sciences, Qazvin, IR Iran Ebrahim Amini Ebrahim Amini Division of Health Deputy, Qazvin University of Medical Sciences, Qazvin, IR Iran Division of Health Deputy, Qazvin University of Medical Sciences, Qazvin, IR Iran
en 10.17795/bhs-26797 Biological Properties of Vitex agnus-castus Essential Oil (Phytochemical Component, Antioxidant and Antifungal Activity) Biological Properties of <italic>Vitex agnus-castus</italic> Essential Oil (Phytochemical Component, Antioxidant and Antifungal Activity) research-article research-article Conclusions

Potent antifungal activity, make this plant an effective replacement treatment for fungal infections or fungal strains that are resistance to synthetic antifungals.

Results

Thirty-two components were identified in Vitex agnus-castus EO. The main compound was alpha-Pinene (19.48%). The total phenolic content of EO was determined as 82.26 ± 5.94 mg Gallic Acid Equivalent (GAE)/g EO. The EO exhibited significant radical scavenging activity with IC50 value of 27.16 µg/mL. The obtained EO showed significant antifungal activity. Aspergillus niger was more susceptible than other fungi (MIC: 0.78 μL/mL).

Background

Vitex agnus-castus is a deciduous shrub that is native to the Mediterranean region. It has traditionally been used in Iranian medicine. In the current study, Vitex agnus-castus Essential Oil (EO) leaves were analyzed for their chemical component as well as antioxidant and antifungal activity.

Objectives

The aim of this study was to determine the biological properties (phytochemical component, and antioxidant and antifungal activity) of Vitex agnus-castus EO from an Iranian origin.

Materials and Methods

Chemical composition of the EO was determined by using Gas Chromatography (GC) and Gas Chromatography/Mass Spectrometry (GC-MS). Antioxidant activity of the Vitex agnus-castus EO was examined by the 1, 1-Diphenyl-2-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH) assay, while the total phenolic content was also determined. Antifungal activity (against Candida albicans, Candida tropicalis, Candida parapsilosis, Candida krusei, Candida dubliniensis, Aspergillus flavus, Aspergillus niger, Penicillium species and Alternaria species) was performed by a broth microdilution method according to the Clinical and Laboratory Standards Institute (CLSI) protocols M27-A and M38-A for yeasts and filamentous species.

Conclusions

Potent antifungal activity, make this plant an effective replacement treatment for fungal infections or fungal strains that are resistance to synthetic antifungals.

Results

Thirty-two components were identified in Vitex agnus-castus EO. The main compound was alpha-Pinene (19.48%). The total phenolic content of EO was determined as 82.26 ± 5.94 mg Gallic Acid Equivalent (GAE)/g EO. The EO exhibited significant radical scavenging activity with IC50 value of 27.16 µg/mL. The obtained EO showed significant antifungal activity. Aspergillus niger was more susceptible than other fungi (MIC: 0.78 μL/mL).

Background

Vitex agnus-castus is a deciduous shrub that is native to the Mediterranean region. It has traditionally been used in Iranian medicine. In the current study, Vitex agnus-castus Essential Oil (EO) leaves were analyzed for their chemical component as well as antioxidant and antifungal activity.

Objectives

The aim of this study was to determine the biological properties (phytochemical component, and antioxidant and antifungal activity) of Vitex agnus-castus EO from an Iranian origin.

Materials and Methods

Chemical composition of the EO was determined by using Gas Chromatography (GC) and Gas Chromatography/Mass Spectrometry (GC-MS). Antioxidant activity of the Vitex agnus-castus EO was examined by the 1, 1-Diphenyl-2-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH) assay, while the total phenolic content was also determined. Antifungal activity (against Candida albicans, Candida tropicalis, Candida parapsilosis, Candida krusei, Candida dubliniensis, Aspergillus flavus, Aspergillus niger, Penicillium species and Alternaria species) was performed by a broth microdilution method according to the Clinical and Laboratory Standards Institute (CLSI) protocols M27-A and M38-A for yeasts and filamentous species.

Diphenyl-2-picrylhydrazyl;Essential oil;Phenolic Component;Vitex agnus-castus;Gas Chromatography-Mass Spectrometry Diphenyl-2-picrylhydrazyl;Essential oil;Phenolic Component;Vitex agnus-castus;Gas Chromatography-Mass Spectrometry http://www.Biotech-health.com/index.php?page=article&article_id=26797 Farzad Katiraee Farzad Katiraee Department of Pathobiology, Faculty of Veterinary Medicine, University of Tabriz, Tabriz, IR Iran Department of Pathobiology, Faculty of Veterinary Medicine, University of Tabriz, Tabriz, IR Iran Razzagh Mahmoudi Razzagh Mahmoudi Department of Food Hygiene and Aquatics, Faculty of Veterinary Medicine, University of Tabriz, Tabriz, IR Iran; Department of Food Hygiene and Aquatics, Faculty of Veterinary Medicine, University of Tabriz, Tabriz, IR Iran. Tel: +98-9127868571, Fax: +98-4136378743 Department of Food Hygiene and Aquatics, Faculty of Veterinary Medicine, University of Tabriz, Tabriz, IR Iran; Department of Food Hygiene and Aquatics, Faculty of Veterinary Medicine, University of Tabriz, Tabriz, IR Iran. Tel: +98-9127868571, Fax: +98-4136378743 Keyvan Tahapour Keyvan Tahapour Department of Pathobiology, Faculty of Veterinary Medicine, University of Tabriz, Tabriz, IR Iran Department of Pathobiology, Faculty of Veterinary Medicine, University of Tabriz, Tabriz, IR Iran Gholamreza Hamidian Gholamreza Hamidian Department of Basic Siences, Faculty of Veterinary Medicine, University of Tabriz, Tabriz, IR Iran Department of Basic Siences, Faculty of Veterinary Medicine, University of Tabriz, Tabriz, IR Iran Seyed Jamal Emami Seyed Jamal Emami Department of Pathobiology, Faculty of Veterinary Medicine, University of Tabriz, Tabriz, IR Iran Department of Pathobiology, Faculty of Veterinary Medicine, University of Tabriz, Tabriz, IR Iran
en 10.17795/bhs-26216 Swine-Origin Influenza A (H1N1) and Seasonal Influenza in Qazvin Province, Iran: Comparison of Epidemiological Features, Clinical Manifestations and Outcome of the 2009 Pandemic Swine-Origin Influenza A (H1N1) and Seasonal Influenza in Qazvin Province, Iran: Comparison of Epidemiological Features, Clinical Manifestations and Outcome of the 2009 Pandemic research-article research-article Background

Emergence of a novel swine-origin influenza A (H1N1) pandemic since 2009 attracted the attention of scientists to characterize epidemiological features and clinical manifestations of this disease in comparison to seasonal flu in different parts of the world.

Objectives

The goal of this investigation was to compare these features in confirmed cases of swine-origin influenza A (H1N1) and seasonal flu in the 2009 epidemic in Qazvin province, Iran.

Patients and Methods

This cross sectional study was performed during 2009 in the Qazvin province. The epidemiological characteristics and clinical manifestations of all cases with severe flu-like manifestations were registered. Diagnosis of confirmed cases of both groups was performed by Real Time-Polymerase Chain Reaction (RT-PCR) on respiratory secretions of positive cases of swine-origin influenza A (H1N1) and seasonal influenza that were entered in the study. Analysis of quantitative data was performed using paired t-test and those of qualitative variables by chi square and Fisher’s exact test.

Results

Among a total of 518 patients with clinical signs of severe influenza throughout the Qazvin province, 76 confirmed cases of swine-origin influenza A (H1N1) and 36 cases of other types of influenza A (seasonal influenza) were detected. The mean age of the first group was 25.67 ± 16.9 years and that of the second group was 36.03 ± 19.8, with a significant difference between the two groups (P < 0.01). The appearance of diarrhea was significantly higher in patients with swine-origin influenza compared to those with seasonal influenza (P < 0.005). There was no statistically significant difference in the number of hospitalizations, need for intensive care, assisted ventilation, and mortality rate between the two groups.

Conclusions

Higher prevalence of disease in younger individuals, higher rate of gastrointestinal manifestations and occurrence outside of the epidemic season, were the most important characteristics of swine-origin influenza in comparison to seasonal influenza, in the 2009 pandemic of Qazvin province, Iran.

Background

Emergence of a novel swine-origin influenza A (H1N1) pandemic since 2009 attracted the attention of scientists to characterize epidemiological features and clinical manifestations of this disease in comparison to seasonal flu in different parts of the world.

Objectives

The goal of this investigation was to compare these features in confirmed cases of swine-origin influenza A (H1N1) and seasonal flu in the 2009 epidemic in Qazvin province, Iran.

Patients and Methods

This cross sectional study was performed during 2009 in the Qazvin province. The epidemiological characteristics and clinical manifestations of all cases with severe flu-like manifestations were registered. Diagnosis of confirmed cases of both groups was performed by Real Time-Polymerase Chain Reaction (RT-PCR) on respiratory secretions of positive cases of swine-origin influenza A (H1N1) and seasonal influenza that were entered in the study. Analysis of quantitative data was performed using paired t-test and those of qualitative variables by chi square and Fisher’s exact test.

Results

Among a total of 518 patients with clinical signs of severe influenza throughout the Qazvin province, 76 confirmed cases of swine-origin influenza A (H1N1) and 36 cases of other types of influenza A (seasonal influenza) were detected. The mean age of the first group was 25.67 ± 16.9 years and that of the second group was 36.03 ± 19.8, with a significant difference between the two groups (P < 0.01). The appearance of diarrhea was significantly higher in patients with swine-origin influenza compared to those with seasonal influenza (P < 0.005). There was no statistically significant difference in the number of hospitalizations, need for intensive care, assisted ventilation, and mortality rate between the two groups.

Conclusions

Higher prevalence of disease in younger individuals, higher rate of gastrointestinal manifestations and occurrence outside of the epidemic season, were the most important characteristics of swine-origin influenza in comparison to seasonal influenza, in the 2009 pandemic of Qazvin province, Iran.

Influenza A Virus, H1N1 Subtype;Epidemiology Influenza A Virus, H1N1 Subtype;Epidemiology http://www.Biotech-health.com/index.php?page=article&article_id=26216 Behzad Bijani Behzad Bijani Department of Infectious Diseases, Faculty of Medicine, Qazvin University of Medical Sciences, Qazvin, IR Iran Department of Infectious Diseases, Faculty of Medicine, Qazvin University of Medical Sciences, Qazvin, IR Iran Ali Asghar Pahlevan Ali Asghar Pahlevan Department of Microbiology, Faculty of Medicine, Qazvin University of Medical Sciences, Qazvin, IR Iran Department of Microbiology, Faculty of Medicine, Qazvin University of Medical Sciences, Qazvin, IR Iran Reza Qasemi-Barqi Reza Qasemi-Barqi Department of Infectious Diseases, Faculty of Medicine, Qazvin University of Medical Sciences, Qazvin, IR Iran; Department of Infectious Diseases, Faculty of Medicine, Qazvin University of Medical Sciences, Qazvin, IR Iran. Tel: +98-2833326032, Fax: +98-2833326033 Department of Infectious Diseases, Faculty of Medicine, Qazvin University of Medical Sciences, Qazvin, IR Iran; Department of Infectious Diseases, Faculty of Medicine, Qazvin University of Medical Sciences, Qazvin, IR Iran. Tel: +98-2833326032, Fax: +98-2833326033 Mohammad Reza Sarokhani Mohammad Reza Sarokhani Department of Biotechnology, Faculty of Health and Paramedical Sciences, Qazvin University of Medical Sciences, Qazvin, IR Iran Department of Biotechnology, Faculty of Health and Paramedical Sciences, Qazvin University of Medical Sciences, Qazvin, IR Iran
en 10.17795/bhs-28456 Evaluating the Noise level at Qazvin University Hospital’s Intensive Care Units Evaluating the Noise level at Qazvin University Hospital’s Intensive Care Units brief-report brief-report Background

Noise at Intensive Care Units (ICU) has an adverse effect on patients and ICU staff. There are some evidences that sleep, recovery from critical illness and average background noise in hospitals as recommended by the US Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) and World Health Organization (WHO) should not exceed 30 A-weighted decibel (dBA) and peaks during night time should be less than 40 dBA. This survey was conducted to measure noise levels and their relationship with the time of the day and location in the ICU.

Objectives

The objectives of this study were to measure noise levels and evaluate their relationship with time of day and location in the ICU.

Materials and Methods

This cross sectional study was conducted in a public university hospital, namely Qazvin University of Medical Sciences, Qazvin, Iran. Noise levels were measured with SLM Sound level meter (model: Tes-1443) during 24 hours with the equivalent sound level (LEQ), maximum (Max) and peak sound pressure based on the ISO 9612.this tool can measure in the range of 30 to 110 dB dynamic network. While frequency A, fast time scale networks with 125 ms fast response microphones were selected. This method says that measuring point must have distance 1.5 meter from the wall at a height of 1.25 m above ground level. At the bedside of patients measurement done by 3 TES model 1353 H Tool by a Taiwanese company.

Results

This survey showed that the Equivalent Sound Level (Leq) in ICU was much higher than the standard level. The Maximum Sound Level (Lmax) in most places was 84 - 89 dBA and just in one measurement in the Internal ICU reached 90 dB. The average level of Leq in ICU was 70 dB.

Conclusions

Equivalent noise level and Noise Criteria in ward remarkably exceeds the standards levels. This condition will be produce Dangerous circumstances for admitted patients in ward.

Background

Noise at Intensive Care Units (ICU) has an adverse effect on patients and ICU staff. There are some evidences that sleep, recovery from critical illness and average background noise in hospitals as recommended by the US Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) and World Health Organization (WHO) should not exceed 30 A-weighted decibel (dBA) and peaks during night time should be less than 40 dBA. This survey was conducted to measure noise levels and their relationship with the time of the day and location in the ICU.

Objectives

The objectives of this study were to measure noise levels and evaluate their relationship with time of day and location in the ICU.

Materials and Methods

This cross sectional study was conducted in a public university hospital, namely Qazvin University of Medical Sciences, Qazvin, Iran. Noise levels were measured with SLM Sound level meter (model: Tes-1443) during 24 hours with the equivalent sound level (LEQ), maximum (Max) and peak sound pressure based on the ISO 9612.this tool can measure in the range of 30 to 110 dB dynamic network. While frequency A, fast time scale networks with 125 ms fast response microphones were selected. This method says that measuring point must have distance 1.5 meter from the wall at a height of 1.25 m above ground level. At the bedside of patients measurement done by 3 TES model 1353 H Tool by a Taiwanese company.

Results

This survey showed that the Equivalent Sound Level (Leq) in ICU was much higher than the standard level. The Maximum Sound Level (Lmax) in most places was 84 - 89 dBA and just in one measurement in the Internal ICU reached 90 dB. The average level of Leq in ICU was 70 dB.

Conclusions

Equivalent noise level and Noise Criteria in ward remarkably exceeds the standards levels. This condition will be produce Dangerous circumstances for admitted patients in ward.

Hospital;Intensive Care Unit;Noise;Criteria Hospital;Intensive Care Unit;Noise;Criteria http://www.Biotech-health.com/index.php?page=article&article_id=28456 Ahmad Nikpey Ahmad Nikpey Department of Occupational Health, Qazvin University of Medical Sciences, Qazvin, IR Iran Department of Occupational Health, Qazvin University of Medical Sciences, Qazvin, IR Iran Mehran Ghalenoei Mehran Ghalenoei Department of Occupational Health, Qazvin University of Medical Sciences, Qazvin, IR Iran; Department of Occupational Health, Qazvin University of Medical Sciences, Qazvin, IR Iran. Tel: +98-2833328212, Fax: +98-2833345862 Department of Occupational Health, Qazvin University of Medical Sciences, Qazvin, IR Iran; Department of Occupational Health, Qazvin University of Medical Sciences, Qazvin, IR Iran. Tel: +98-2833328212, Fax: +98-2833345862 Ali Safary Variani Ali Safary Variani Department of Occupational Health, Qazvin University of Medical Sciences, Qazvin, IR Iran Department of Occupational Health, Qazvin University of Medical Sciences, Qazvin, IR Iran Hamed Nadri Hamed Nadri Department of Occupational Health, Shahid Beheshti University of Medical Sciences, Tehran, IR Iran Department of Occupational Health, Shahid Beheshti University of Medical Sciences, Tehran, IR Iran
en 10.17795/bhs-26898 Tranexamic Acid in the Control of Uterine Atony During Labor Tranexamic Acid in the Control of Uterine Atony During Labor research-article research-article Results

Hemoglobin level was 9.9 ± 5.1 in the control group six hours after hemorrhage while it was 8.10 ± 2.1 in the treatment group (P = 0.004). Hemoglobin level was 5.8 ± 4.1 in the control who did not receive transfusion of blood products during the first 24 hours after hemorrhage, while this level was 7.9 ± 4.1 in the treatment group (P = 0.001). The amount of bleeding significantly declined in the intervention group compared to the control group (P < 0.001). Moreover, the need for transfusion of blood products decreased by a third (P < 0.001) while the number of hospitalization days significantly decreased as well (P < 0.04).

Objectives

The aim of this study was to determine the effect of tranexamic acid on the control of uterine atony during labor.

Patients and Methods

A randomized clinical trial was conducted on 90 pregnant women who had uterine atony in Qazvin, during the year 2012. The control group (n = 45) received the routine treatment of uterine atony. The second group (n = 45), in addition to the routine treatments, received 1 gram of tranexamic acid diluted in 100 mL saline of 5% dextrose in water by intravenous infusion within 10 minutes. The amount of blood loss, changes in hemoglobin level, need for surgical intervention and transfusion of blood products and duration of hospitalization were compared between the two groups. Data were analyzed using the chi-square test and t test.

Background

Death from hemorrhage is still the leading cause of maternal mortality.

Conclusions

Tranexamic acid can significantly reduce the rate of postpartum hemorrhage.

Results

Hemoglobin level was 9.9 ± 5.1 in the control group six hours after hemorrhage while it was 8.10 ± 2.1 in the treatment group (P = 0.004). Hemoglobin level was 5.8 ± 4.1 in the control who did not receive transfusion of blood products during the first 24 hours after hemorrhage, while this level was 7.9 ± 4.1 in the treatment group (P = 0.001). The amount of bleeding significantly declined in the intervention group compared to the control group (P < 0.001). Moreover, the need for transfusion of blood products decreased by a third (P < 0.001) while the number of hospitalization days significantly decreased as well (P < 0.04).

Objectives

The aim of this study was to determine the effect of tranexamic acid on the control of uterine atony during labor.

Patients and Methods

A randomized clinical trial was conducted on 90 pregnant women who had uterine atony in Qazvin, during the year 2012. The control group (n = 45) received the routine treatment of uterine atony. The second group (n = 45), in addition to the routine treatments, received 1 gram of tranexamic acid diluted in 100 mL saline of 5% dextrose in water by intravenous infusion within 10 minutes. The amount of blood loss, changes in hemoglobin level, need for surgical intervention and transfusion of blood products and duration of hospitalization were compared between the two groups. Data were analyzed using the chi-square test and t test.

Background

Death from hemorrhage is still the leading cause of maternal mortality.

Conclusions

Tranexamic acid can significantly reduce the rate of postpartum hemorrhage.

Postpartum Hemorrhage;Tranexamic Acid;Caesarean Section Postpartum Hemorrhage;Tranexamic Acid;Caesarean Section http://www.Biotech-health.com/index.php?page=article&article_id=26898 Ezzatossadat Haj Seyed Javadi Ezzatossadat Haj Seyed Javadi Children Growth Research Center, Qazvin University of Medical Sciences, Qazvin, IR Iran Children Growth Research Center, Qazvin University of Medical Sciences, Qazvin, IR Iran Zoya Sadeghipour Zoya Sadeghipour Children Growth Research Center, Qazvin University of Medical Sciences, Qazvin, IR Iran Children Growth Research Center, Qazvin University of Medical Sciences, Qazvin, IR Iran Ameneh Barikani Ameneh Barikani Children Growth Research Center, Qazvin University of Medical Sciences, Qazvin, IR Iran; Children Growth Research Center, Qazvin University of Medical Sciences, Qazvin, IR Iran. Tel: +98-2833328709, Fax: +98-2833344088 Children Growth Research Center, Qazvin University of Medical Sciences, Qazvin, IR Iran; Children Growth Research Center, Qazvin University of Medical Sciences, Qazvin, IR Iran. Tel: +98-2833328709, Fax: +98-2833344088 Maryam Javadi Maryam Javadi Children Growth Research Center, Qazvin University of Medical Sciences, Qazvin, IR Iran Children Growth Research Center, Qazvin University of Medical Sciences, Qazvin, IR Iran