Biotechnology and Health Sciences Biotechnology and Health Sciences Biotech Health Sci http://www.Biotech-health.com 2383-0271 2383-028X 10.5812/bhs en jalali 2017 5 29 gregorian 2017 5 29 2 1
en 10.17795/bhs-25815 The Assessment of Dentists’ Knowledge Regarding Indications of Cone Beam Computed Tomography in Qazvin, Iran The Assessment of Dentists’ Knowledge Regarding Indications of Cone Beam Computed Tomography in Qazvin, Iran research-article research-article Background

Cone beam computed tomography (CT) has recently become effective for oral and maxillofacial imaging.

Objectives

The aim of this study was to assess the knowledge of dentists regarding cone beam computed tomography.

Materials and Methods

In this descriptive cross sectional study, a questionnaire regarding cone-beam computed tomography (CBCT) was distributed amongst 100 dentists (general and specialist) in Qazvin, Iran. Their level of knowledge was compared in each section on the basis of age, gender, years of employment and last educational status and analyzed by the SPSS software and Mann-Whitney test.

Results

Data analysis showed that 4% of dentists had very low, 16% had low, 50% had medium, 19% had good and 11% had in very good level of knowledge. The average of dentists’ knowledge was 57 ± 18. According to the statistical results, there was a significant difference between level of knowledge and age, years of employment and educational degree (P < 0.05). Age and years of employment had a reverse relationship with level of knowledge and specialists had greater awareness. There was no significant difference between level of knowledge and sex (P > 0.05).

Conclusions

Overall, dentists had an average level of knowledge for CBCT. It is recommended for qualification programs to be held for dentists to strengthen their awareness toward cone beam computed tomography.

Background

Cone beam computed tomography (CT) has recently become effective for oral and maxillofacial imaging.

Objectives

The aim of this study was to assess the knowledge of dentists regarding cone beam computed tomography.

Materials and Methods

In this descriptive cross sectional study, a questionnaire regarding cone-beam computed tomography (CBCT) was distributed amongst 100 dentists (general and specialist) in Qazvin, Iran. Their level of knowledge was compared in each section on the basis of age, gender, years of employment and last educational status and analyzed by the SPSS software and Mann-Whitney test.

Results

Data analysis showed that 4% of dentists had very low, 16% had low, 50% had medium, 19% had good and 11% had in very good level of knowledge. The average of dentists’ knowledge was 57 ± 18. According to the statistical results, there was a significant difference between level of knowledge and age, years of employment and educational degree (P < 0.05). Age and years of employment had a reverse relationship with level of knowledge and specialists had greater awareness. There was no significant difference between level of knowledge and sex (P > 0.05).

Conclusions

Overall, dentists had an average level of knowledge for CBCT. It is recommended for qualification programs to be held for dentists to strengthen their awareness toward cone beam computed tomography.

Knowledge;Dentist;Cone - Beam Computed Tomography Knowledge;Dentist;Cone - Beam Computed Tomography http://www.Biotech-health.com/index.php?page=article&article_id=25815 Maryam Tofangchiha Maryam Tofangchiha Department of Oral Radiology, Dental Faculty, Qazvin University of Medical Sciences, Qazvin, IR Iran Department of Oral Radiology, Dental Faculty, Qazvin University of Medical Sciences, Qazvin, IR Iran Faraz Arianfar Faraz Arianfar Department of Oral Radiology, Dental Faculty, Qazvin University of Medical Sciences, Qazvin, IR Iran Department of Oral Radiology, Dental Faculty, Qazvin University of Medical Sciences, Qazvin, IR Iran Mahin Bakhshi Mahin Bakhshi Department of Oral Medicine, Dental Faculty, Shahid Beheshti University of Medical Sciences, Tehran, IR Iran Department of Oral Medicine, Dental Faculty, Shahid Beheshti University of Medical Sciences, Tehran, IR Iran Mansour Khorasani Mansour Khorasani Department of Oral and Maxillofacial Surgery, Dental Faculty, Qazvin University of Medical Sciences, Qazvin, IR Iran; Department of Oral and Maxillofacial Surgery, Dental Faculty, Qazvin University of Medical Sciences, Qazvin, IR Iran. Tel: +98-2813353061 Department of Oral and Maxillofacial Surgery, Dental Faculty, Qazvin University of Medical Sciences, Qazvin, IR Iran; Department of Oral and Maxillofacial Surgery, Dental Faculty, Qazvin University of Medical Sciences, Qazvin, IR Iran. Tel: +98-2813353061
en 10.17795/bhs-25731 The Effects of Mothers’ Self-Efficacy on Children’s Physical Activity The Effects of Mothers’ Self-Efficacy on Children’s Physical Activity research-article research-article Conclusions

Maternal physical activity affects children’s physical activity, and is affected by mother’s self-efficacy. Yet based on the findings of this study, regarding the role model effects of mothers in children aged 10-12 years, researchers proposed that interventions related to physical activity in children would work better if they are set to increase self-efficacy in mothers, which in turn lead to increased physical activity in children.

Results

Means and standard deviations of age of children and their mothers were 11.2 ± 1.1 and 31.2 ± 3.4 years, respectively. Nearly half (46.5%) of the mothers had no formal education and most of them (58.5%) were housewife. There was a significant positive relationship between these three variables (r (CPA × MPA) = 0.748, r (MPA × MSE) = 0.347, r (CPA × MSE) = 0.433, P ≤ 0.05)). The maternal physical activity explained approximately 56% (R2 = 0.559) of physical activity performance in children (CPA).

Background

Physical activity has many health benefits, and numerous studies have shown the association between regular physical activity and prevention of about 25 chronic diseases. The guidelines recommend that everyone should try to make physical activity a part of their daily life in order to prevent the unhealthy consequences of sedentary behaviors.

Objectives

The aim of this study was to assess the effect of maternal self-efficacy on children’s physical activity.

Patients and Methods

Inclusion criteria for schoolchildren were: studying at the 5thor 6th grade, relative body mass index of over 85 BMI, and having no restriction or prohibition for regular physical activity. Thus, a total of 300 schoolchildren with their mothers (600 participants) were recruited. To assess children’s physical activity (CPA) and maternal physical activity (MPA) we applied the previous day physical activity recall (PDPAR) tool and the international physical activity questionnaire (IPAQ), respectively. Mother’s self-efficacy (MSE) was measured using an eight-item standard questionnaire. Pearson’s correlation test was applied to assess the relationship between MSE, MPA and CPA. To assess the predictor effect of MSE on CPA, the linear regression model was used.

Conclusions

Maternal physical activity affects children’s physical activity, and is affected by mother’s self-efficacy. Yet based on the findings of this study, regarding the role model effects of mothers in children aged 10-12 years, researchers proposed that interventions related to physical activity in children would work better if they are set to increase self-efficacy in mothers, which in turn lead to increased physical activity in children.

Results

Means and standard deviations of age of children and their mothers were 11.2 ± 1.1 and 31.2 ± 3.4 years, respectively. Nearly half (46.5%) of the mothers had no formal education and most of them (58.5%) were housewife. There was a significant positive relationship between these three variables (r (CPA × MPA) = 0.748, r (MPA × MSE) = 0.347, r (CPA × MSE) = 0.433, P ≤ 0.05)). The maternal physical activity explained approximately 56% (R2 = 0.559) of physical activity performance in children (CPA).

Background

Physical activity has many health benefits, and numerous studies have shown the association between regular physical activity and prevention of about 25 chronic diseases. The guidelines recommend that everyone should try to make physical activity a part of their daily life in order to prevent the unhealthy consequences of sedentary behaviors.

Objectives

The aim of this study was to assess the effect of maternal self-efficacy on children’s physical activity.

Patients and Methods

Inclusion criteria for schoolchildren were: studying at the 5thor 6th grade, relative body mass index of over 85 BMI, and having no restriction or prohibition for regular physical activity. Thus, a total of 300 schoolchildren with their mothers (600 participants) were recruited. To assess children’s physical activity (CPA) and maternal physical activity (MPA) we applied the previous day physical activity recall (PDPAR) tool and the international physical activity questionnaire (IPAQ), respectively. Mother’s self-efficacy (MSE) was measured using an eight-item standard questionnaire. Pearson’s correlation test was applied to assess the relationship between MSE, MPA and CPA. To assess the predictor effect of MSE on CPA, the linear regression model was used.

Physical Activity;Parent;Children;Self Efficacy Physical Activity;Parent;Children;Self Efficacy http://www.Biotech-health.com/index.php?page=article&article_id=25731 Kazem Hosseinzadeh Kazem Hosseinzadeh Health Education Department, Faculty of Medicine, Tarbiat Modares University, Tehran, IR Iran Health Education Department, Faculty of Medicine, Tarbiat Modares University, Tehran, IR Iran Shamsaddin Niknami Shamsaddin Niknami Health Education Department, Faculty of Medicine, Tarbiat Modares University, Tehran, IR Iran; Health Education Department, Faculty of Medicine, Tarbiat Modares University, Tehran, IR Iran. Tel: +98-2182883549 Health Education Department, Faculty of Medicine, Tarbiat Modares University, Tehran, IR Iran; Health Education Department, Faculty of Medicine, Tarbiat Modares University, Tehran, IR Iran. Tel: +98-2182883549 Alireza Hidarnia Alireza Hidarnia Health Education Department, Faculty of Medicine, Tarbiat Modares University, Tehran, IR Iran Health Education Department, Faculty of Medicine, Tarbiat Modares University, Tehran, IR Iran
en 10.17795/bhs-25758 Frequency of Oral Anatomic Variations and Mucosal Lesions Among a Defined Group of Elderly Dental Patients in Iran Frequency of Oral Anatomic Variations and Mucosal Lesions Among a Defined Group of Elderly Dental Patients in Iran research-article research-article Results

Out of the 129 elderly participants, aged between 60-87 years (mean: 66.71 ± 6.21), males constituted 58.1% (n = 75) of patients and female were 41.9% (n = 54). Normal variations of oral mucosa were observed in 62% (n = 80) of patients, while 44.2% (n = 57) had oral mucosal lesions. Normal variations were significantly associated with smoking (OR = 1.2), while denture wearers were at higher risk of oral pathological lesions (OR = 1.5). Meanwhile, the frequency of normal variations in men was 1.3 folds higher than that of women (P = 0.04).

Conclusions

The frequency of normal variations and oral lesions among elderly dental patients is high, and this is significantly associated with smoking, denture wearing and male sex.

Background

Aging and its consequences has been a major population problem around the globe.

Objectives

This study aimed to determine the prevalence of anatomical variations and pathological lesions of oral mucosa among elderly dental patients.

Patients and Methods

We conducted this study on elderly patients who had attended Oral Medicine Department of Shahid Beheshti University of Medical Sciences, Dental School, Tehran, Iran. In total, 129 consecutive patients of 60 years of age or older were interviewed and clinically investigated for the presence of oral mucosal alterations. Lesions without definite clinical diagnoses were examined histopathologically. Data were analyzed by the Chi-square test and logistic regression by means of the SPSS software version 18.

Results

Out of the 129 elderly participants, aged between 60-87 years (mean: 66.71 ± 6.21), males constituted 58.1% (n = 75) of patients and female were 41.9% (n = 54). Normal variations of oral mucosa were observed in 62% (n = 80) of patients, while 44.2% (n = 57) had oral mucosal lesions. Normal variations were significantly associated with smoking (OR = 1.2), while denture wearers were at higher risk of oral pathological lesions (OR = 1.5). Meanwhile, the frequency of normal variations in men was 1.3 folds higher than that of women (P = 0.04).

Conclusions

The frequency of normal variations and oral lesions among elderly dental patients is high, and this is significantly associated with smoking, denture wearing and male sex.

Background

Aging and its consequences has been a major population problem around the globe.

Objectives

This study aimed to determine the prevalence of anatomical variations and pathological lesions of oral mucosa among elderly dental patients.

Patients and Methods

We conducted this study on elderly patients who had attended Oral Medicine Department of Shahid Beheshti University of Medical Sciences, Dental School, Tehran, Iran. In total, 129 consecutive patients of 60 years of age or older were interviewed and clinically investigated for the presence of oral mucosal alterations. Lesions without definite clinical diagnoses were examined histopathologically. Data were analyzed by the Chi-square test and logistic regression by means of the SPSS software version 18.

Aged;Anatomic Variation;Mouth;Frequency Aged;Anatomic Variation;Mouth;Frequency http://www.Biotech-health.com/index.php?page=article&article_id=25758 Mahin Bakhshi Mahin Bakhshi Department of Oral and Maxillofacial Medicine, Dental School, Shahid Beheshti University of Medical Sciences, Tehran, IR Iran Department of Oral and Maxillofacial Medicine, Dental School, Shahid Beheshti University of Medical Sciences, Tehran, IR Iran Zahra Hassani Zahra Hassani Department of Oral and Maxillofacial Medicine, Dental School, Shahid Beheshti University of Medical Sciences, Tehran, IR Iran Department of Oral and Maxillofacial Medicine, Dental School, Shahid Beheshti University of Medical Sciences, Tehran, IR Iran Maryam Tofangchiha Maryam Tofangchiha Department of Oral and Maxillofacial Radiology, Dental School, Qazvin University of Medical Sciences, Qazvin, IR Iran Department of Oral and Maxillofacial Radiology, Dental School, Qazvin University of Medical Sciences, Qazvin, IR Iran Maryam Baharvand Maryam Baharvand Department of Oral and Maxillofacial Medicine, Dental School, Shahid Beheshti University of Medical Sciences, Tehran, IR Iran; Department of Oral and Maxillofacial Medicine, Dental School, Shahid Beheshti University of Medical Sciences, P. O. Box: 1983963113, Tehran, IR Iran. Tel: +98-2129902311 Department of Oral and Maxillofacial Medicine, Dental School, Shahid Beheshti University of Medical Sciences, Tehran, IR Iran; Department of Oral and Maxillofacial Medicine, Dental School, Shahid Beheshti University of Medical Sciences, P. O. Box: 1983963113, Tehran, IR Iran. Tel: +98-2129902311
en 10.17795/bhs-25731 Middle East Respiratory Syndrome Coronavirus Middle East Respiratory Syndrome Coronavirus editorial editorial MERS-CoV;Pevention;Standard Precautions MERS-CoV;Pevention;Standard Precautions http://www.Biotech-health.com/index.php?page=article&article_id=20755 Batool Sharifi-Mood Batool Sharifi-Mood Infectious Diseases and Tropical Medicine Research Center, Zahedan University of Medical Sciences, Zahedan, IR Iran; Infectious Diseases and Tropical Medicine Research Center, Boo-Ali Hospital, Zahedan University of Medical Sciences, Zahedan, IR Iran. Tel: +98-5413228101, Fax: +98-5413236722 Infectious Diseases and Tropical Medicine Research Center, Zahedan University of Medical Sciences, Zahedan, IR Iran; Infectious Diseases and Tropical Medicine Research Center, Boo-Ali Hospital, Zahedan University of Medical Sciences, Zahedan, IR Iran. Tel: +98-5413228101, Fax: +98-5413236722
en 10.17795/bhs-27009 Frequency of Chlamydia trachomatis in Endocervical Samples of Women Referred to a Gynecology Hospital in Qazvin, Iran Frequency of <italic>Chlamydia trachomatis</italic> in Endocervical Samples of Women Referred to a Gynecology Hospital in Qazvin, Iran research-article research-article Conclusions

The results of this study showed that there was a high prevalence of C. trachomatis infection among both symptomatic and asymptomatic women. Therefore, a screening test for C. trachomatis infection is recommended for all women who refer to the genitourinary medicine clinic. Screening programs are important for cost effectiveness calculations of C. trachomatis infections especially in asymptomatic cases.

Background

Chlamydia trachomatis (C. trachomatis) is the most common bacterial sexually transmitted infection (STI). Although most genital C. trachomatis infections remain asymptomatic but infection with these bacteria is the leading cause of complications, such as pelvic inflammatory disease (PID), tubal factor infertility and abortion.

Objectives

The objective of this study was to estimate the frequency of C. trachomatis infection among symptomatic and asymptomatic women, by a polymerase chain reaction (PCR) based assay.

Patients and Methods

This was a cross-sectional study conducted over the period from May 2012 to February 2013. A total of 240 non-duplicate endocervical samples were taken from married women; endocervical swabs were collected from women referred to Qazvin Kowsar Gynecology Hospital by a training midwife. The specimens were tested for C. trachomatis by a PCR-based assay for the pha gene.

Results

Out of the 240 female participants, 184 (76.7%) were symptomatic and 56 (23.3%) were asymptomatic cases. The mean age of cases was 37.1 ± 0.9 years. Twenty (8.3%) of the 240 samples were diagnosed as Chlamydia positive according to PCR results. The prevalence of asymptomatic C. trachomatis infections was six (10.7%), while there were 14 (7.6%) in symptomatic cases. Although positive PCR results have shown in women with vaginosis (7.1%), abortion (5.1%), premature birth and low birth weight below 2.5 kg (7.7%) but the chi-square test did not indicate a significant relationship between positive PCR test results and these symptoms.

Conclusions

The results of this study showed that there was a high prevalence of C. trachomatis infection among both symptomatic and asymptomatic women. Therefore, a screening test for C. trachomatis infection is recommended for all women who refer to the genitourinary medicine clinic. Screening programs are important for cost effectiveness calculations of C. trachomatis infections especially in asymptomatic cases.

Background

Chlamydia trachomatis (C. trachomatis) is the most common bacterial sexually transmitted infection (STI). Although most genital C. trachomatis infections remain asymptomatic but infection with these bacteria is the leading cause of complications, such as pelvic inflammatory disease (PID), tubal factor infertility and abortion.

Objectives

The objective of this study was to estimate the frequency of C. trachomatis infection among symptomatic and asymptomatic women, by a polymerase chain reaction (PCR) based assay.

Patients and Methods

This was a cross-sectional study conducted over the period from May 2012 to February 2013. A total of 240 non-duplicate endocervical samples were taken from married women; endocervical swabs were collected from women referred to Qazvin Kowsar Gynecology Hospital by a training midwife. The specimens were tested for C. trachomatis by a PCR-based assay for the pha gene.

Results

Out of the 240 female participants, 184 (76.7%) were symptomatic and 56 (23.3%) were asymptomatic cases. The mean age of cases was 37.1 ± 0.9 years. Twenty (8.3%) of the 240 samples were diagnosed as Chlamydia positive according to PCR results. The prevalence of asymptomatic C. trachomatis infections was six (10.7%), while there were 14 (7.6%) in symptomatic cases. Although positive PCR results have shown in women with vaginosis (7.1%), abortion (5.1%), premature birth and low birth weight below 2.5 kg (7.7%) but the chi-square test did not indicate a significant relationship between positive PCR test results and these symptoms.

Chlamydia trachomatis;Women;PCR;Iran Chlamydia trachomatis;Women;PCR;Iran http://www.Biotech-health.com/index.php?page=article&article_id=27009 Masoumeh Aslanimehr Masoumeh Aslanimehr Cellular and Molecular Research Centre, Qazvin University of Medical Sciences, Qazvin, IR Iran Cellular and Molecular Research Centre, Qazvin University of Medical Sciences, Qazvin, IR Iran Mehry Sadeghi Ghazvini Mehry Sadeghi Ghazvini Department of Microbiology, Qazvin University of Medical Sciences, Qazvin, IR Iran Department of Microbiology, Qazvin University of Medical Sciences, Qazvin, IR Iran Saman Saadat Saman Saadat Department of Microbiology, Hamadan University of Medical Sciences, Hamadan, IR Iran Department of Microbiology, Hamadan University of Medical Sciences, Hamadan, IR Iran Amene Barikani Amene Barikani Department of Biostatics and Community Medicine, Qazvin University of Medical Sciences, Qazvin, IR Iran Department of Biostatics and Community Medicine, Qazvin University of Medical Sciences, Qazvin, IR Iran Taghi Naserpour Farivar Taghi Naserpour Farivar Cellular and Molecular Research Centre, Qazvin University of Medical Sciences, Qazvin, IR Iran; Cellular and Molecular Research Centre, Qazvin University of Medical Sciences, Qazvin, IR Iran. Tel: +98-9128801401 Cellular and Molecular Research Centre, Qazvin University of Medical Sciences, Qazvin, IR Iran; Cellular and Molecular Research Centre, Qazvin University of Medical Sciences, Qazvin, IR Iran. Tel: +98-9128801401
en 10.17795/bhs-26943 Evaluation of Bacterial Contamination in Dental Unit Waterlines of Qazvin’ Dental School ,Iran Evaluation of Bacterial Contamination in Dental Unit Waterlines of Qazvin’ Dental School ,Iran brief-report brief-report Conclusions

Flushing dental unit waterlines are an effective measure in reducing the number of bacterial contaminants.

Results

Bacterial contamination was found in all 24 units at the beginning of daily activity with a mean colony count of 17850. The number of colonies decreased to 3250 following 30 seconds of flushing in 16 units and later to 1837 after flushing for two minutes in 13 units. In addition, the number of contaminated units at the end of daily activity was 19 with a mean colony number of 11170.

Objectives

This study was designed to evaluate contamination of dental unit waterlines by common gram positive and negative bacteria in Qazvin’s dental school during the year 2012.

Materials and Methods

This survey was performed on 24 dental units routinely used in the dental school of the city of Qazvin. Four samples of 100 mL were obtained in sterile bottles from each unit at different work stages as follows: the beginning of daily activity, after flushing for 30 seconds, following two minutes of flushing, and after the end of daily practice. The number of bacterial colonies was determined for each sample and the mean colony number was calculated.

Background

Contamination of dental unit waterlines is a well-known issue in the field of dentistry.

Conclusions

Flushing dental unit waterlines are an effective measure in reducing the number of bacterial contaminants.

Results

Bacterial contamination was found in all 24 units at the beginning of daily activity with a mean colony count of 17850. The number of colonies decreased to 3250 following 30 seconds of flushing in 16 units and later to 1837 after flushing for two minutes in 13 units. In addition, the number of contaminated units at the end of daily activity was 19 with a mean colony number of 11170.

Objectives

This study was designed to evaluate contamination of dental unit waterlines by common gram positive and negative bacteria in Qazvin’s dental school during the year 2012.

Materials and Methods

This survey was performed on 24 dental units routinely used in the dental school of the city of Qazvin. Four samples of 100 mL were obtained in sterile bottles from each unit at different work stages as follows: the beginning of daily activity, after flushing for 30 seconds, following two minutes of flushing, and after the end of daily practice. The number of bacterial colonies was determined for each sample and the mean colony number was calculated.

Background

Contamination of dental unit waterlines is a well-known issue in the field of dentistry.

Gram Positive;Gram Negative;Biofilm;Colony Forming Unit assay Gram Positive;Gram Negative;Biofilm;Colony Forming Unit assay http://www.Biotech-health.com/index.php?page=article&article_id=26943 Mahshid Saffarpour Mahshid Saffarpour Department of Operative Dentistry, Qazvin University of Medical Sciences, Qazvin, IR Iran Department of Operative Dentistry, Qazvin University of Medical Sciences, Qazvin, IR Iran Amir Peymani Amir Peymani Department of Microbiology, Qazvin University of Medical Sciences, Qazvin, IR Iran Department of Microbiology, Qazvin University of Medical Sciences, Qazvin, IR Iran Sediegheh Rahrotaban Sediegheh Rahrotaban Department of Pathology, Tehran University of Medical Sciences, Tehran, IR Iran Department of Pathology, Tehran University of Medical Sciences, Tehran, IR Iran Marjan Rahmani Marjan Rahmani Department of Operative Dentistry, Qazvin University of Medical Sciences, Qazvin, IR Iran; Department of Operative Dentistry, Qazvin University of Medical Sciences, Qazvin, IR Iran. Tel: +98-9122816484 Department of Operative Dentistry, Qazvin University of Medical Sciences, Qazvin, IR Iran; Department of Operative Dentistry, Qazvin University of Medical Sciences, Qazvin, IR Iran. Tel: +98-9122816484 Meysam Ebrahimi Meysam Ebrahimi Dental Faculty, Qazvin University of Medical Sciences, Qazvin, IR Iran Dental Faculty, Qazvin University of Medical Sciences, Qazvin, IR Iran