Biotechnology and Health Sciences Biotechnology and Health Sciences Biotech Health Sci http://www.Biotech-health.com 2383-0271 2383-028X 10.5812/bhs en jalali 2017 5 29 gregorian 2017 5 29 1 2
en 10.17795/bhs-22082 Detection of Candida vulvovaginitis in Clinical Samples ; Using Direct Polymerase Chain Reaction Without DNA Extraction Detection of <italic>Candida vulvovaginitis</italic> in Clinical Samples ; Using Direct Polymerase Chain Reaction Without DNA Extraction research-article research-article Conclusions

Direct sample PCR has the potential to rapidly and accurately diagnose Candida vulvovaginitis in patients, especially if sufficient samples are obtained.

Results

The results showed that out of the 150 samples, 55 were positive and 63 samples were negative by both methods, and 32 samples were positive using the culture method, but negative by DS-PCR. All positive DS-PCR samples had > 107 yeast or conidia cells/mL. The sensitivity and specificity of DS-PCR were calculated as 63.2% and 100%, respectively.

Patients and Methods

In the current study, totally 150 sexually active women participated. Vaginal discharge samples were collected using two sterile Dacron swabs that were immediately placed in two tubes each containing 1 mL of distilled water. One of the tubes was used for conventional culture methods whereas the other one was used for DS-PCR without DNA extraction. The number of yeast cells in each sample was counted.

Background

Vulvovaginal candidiasis (VVC) is a common disease which infects women. The current study investigated the performance of direct sample polymerase chain reaction (DS-PCR) method to detect Candida spp. in clinical samples of vulvovaginitisto compare the results to those of standard microbiological laboratory methods.

Objectives

The current study aimed to further simplify the DNA extraction procedure, and shorten the time required for isolation and identification by using direct PCR to identify Candida vulvovaginitis without DNA extraction from samples or colonies.

Conclusions

Direct sample PCR has the potential to rapidly and accurately diagnose Candida vulvovaginitis in patients, especially if sufficient samples are obtained.

Results

The results showed that out of the 150 samples, 55 were positive and 63 samples were negative by both methods, and 32 samples were positive using the culture method, but negative by DS-PCR. All positive DS-PCR samples had > 107 yeast or conidia cells/mL. The sensitivity and specificity of DS-PCR were calculated as 63.2% and 100%, respectively.

Patients and Methods

In the current study, totally 150 sexually active women participated. Vaginal discharge samples were collected using two sterile Dacron swabs that were immediately placed in two tubes each containing 1 mL of distilled water. One of the tubes was used for conventional culture methods whereas the other one was used for DS-PCR without DNA extraction. The number of yeast cells in each sample was counted.

Background

Vulvovaginal candidiasis (VVC) is a common disease which infects women. The current study investigated the performance of direct sample polymerase chain reaction (DS-PCR) method to detect Candida spp. in clinical samples of vulvovaginitisto compare the results to those of standard microbiological laboratory methods.

Objectives

The current study aimed to further simplify the DNA extraction procedure, and shorten the time required for isolation and identification by using direct PCR to identify Candida vulvovaginitis without DNA extraction from samples or colonies.

Candida; Direct Sample PCR Candida; Direct Sample PCR http://www.Biotech-health.com/index.php?page=article&article_id=22082 Mohammad Reza Sarookhani Mohammad Reza Sarookhani Cell and Molecular Research Center and Department of Biotechnology, Qazvin University of Medical Sciences, Qazvin, IR Iran; Cell and Molecular Research Center and Department of Biotechnology, Qazvin University of Medical Sciences, Qazvin, IR Iran. Tel: +98-9121823059, Fax: +98-2833345862 Cell and Molecular Research Center and Department of Biotechnology, Qazvin University of Medical Sciences, Qazvin, IR Iran; Cell and Molecular Research Center and Department of Biotechnology, Qazvin University of Medical Sciences, Qazvin, IR Iran. Tel: +98-9121823059, Fax: +98-2833345862 Hossein Sohrabi Hossein Sohrabi Department of Mycology, Qazvin University of Medical Sciences, Qazvin, IR Iran Department of Mycology, Qazvin University of Medical Sciences, Qazvin, IR Iran Akram Ezani Akram Ezani Reference Laboratories, Qazvin University of Medical Sciences, Qazvin, IR Iran Reference Laboratories, Qazvin University of Medical Sciences, Qazvin, IR Iran
en 10.17795/bhs-22084 Prevalence of Daily Physical Activity and Obesity Among Students Grade 5th and 6th Prevalence of Daily Physical Activity and Obesity Among Students Grade 5th and 6th research-article research-article Background

One of the most pressing threats for children’s health status is overweight and obesity. Previous literature indicates that increasing relative body mass index (RBMI) is accompanied by physical inactivity.

Objectives

The aim of this study was to determine the prevalence of daily physical activity and obesity among students grade 5th and 6th.

Patients and Methods

This was a cross-sectional descriptive study carried out to determine the distribution of daily physical activity according to gender and relative body mass index in overweight and obese children. We randomly selected 12 primary schools and studied their health profiles, including body mass index (BMI) and RBMI. We then selected those who were in the range of overweight and obesity based on the National Centre for Health Statistics (NCHS). Daily physical activities of the subjects were assessed by a self-administered recall tool and concurrently via interviewing the subjects' mothers.

Results

There was a significant difference between the prevalence of obesity and being overweight between genders (P = 0.000). Overweight children, regardless of their gender, had higher daily physical activity than obese individuals and the ANOVA test showed a significant difference between means of daily metabolic equivalent of task (MET) for different genders and relative body mass index (P = 0.000).

Conclusions

As increasing RBMI is concomitant with decreased daily physical activities in both genders, it is important to set plans to increase physical activities of obese children rather than overweight ones.

Background

One of the most pressing threats for children’s health status is overweight and obesity. Previous literature indicates that increasing relative body mass index (RBMI) is accompanied by physical inactivity.

Objectives

The aim of this study was to determine the prevalence of daily physical activity and obesity among students grade 5th and 6th.

Patients and Methods

This was a cross-sectional descriptive study carried out to determine the distribution of daily physical activity according to gender and relative body mass index in overweight and obese children. We randomly selected 12 primary schools and studied their health profiles, including body mass index (BMI) and RBMI. We then selected those who were in the range of overweight and obesity based on the National Centre for Health Statistics (NCHS). Daily physical activities of the subjects were assessed by a self-administered recall tool and concurrently via interviewing the subjects' mothers.

Results

There was a significant difference between the prevalence of obesity and being overweight between genders (P = 0.000). Overweight children, regardless of their gender, had higher daily physical activity than obese individuals and the ANOVA test showed a significant difference between means of daily metabolic equivalent of task (MET) for different genders and relative body mass index (P = 0.000).

Conclusions

As increasing RBMI is concomitant with decreased daily physical activities in both genders, it is important to set plans to increase physical activities of obese children rather than overweight ones.

Physical activity;Overweight;Obesity;Students Physical activity;Overweight;Obesity;Students http://www.Biotech-health.com/index.php?page=article&article_id=22084 Kazem Hosseinzadeh Kazem Hosseinzadeh Department of Health Education, Faculty of Medical Sciences, Tarbiat Modares University, Tehran, IR Iran Department of Health Education, Faculty of Medical Sciences, Tarbiat Modares University, Tehran, IR Iran Shamsaddin Niknami Shamsaddin Niknami Department of Health Education, Faculty of Medical Sciences, Tarbiat Modares University, Tehran, IR Iran; Department of Health Education, Faculty of Medical Sciences, Tarbiat Modares University, Tehran, IR Iran. Tel: +98-9112325786 Department of Health Education, Faculty of Medical Sciences, Tarbiat Modares University, Tehran, IR Iran; Department of Health Education, Faculty of Medical Sciences, Tarbiat Modares University, Tehran, IR Iran. Tel: +98-9112325786 Alireza Hidarnia Alireza Hidarnia Department of Health Education, Faculty of Medical Sciences, Tarbiat Modares University, Tehran, IR Iran Department of Health Education, Faculty of Medical Sciences, Tarbiat Modares University, Tehran, IR Iran
en 10.17795/bhs-22085 Emergence of OXA-Type Extended-Spectrum β-Lactamases Among Enterobacter cloacae Isolates Collected From Hospitals of Tehran, Karaj and Qazvin, Iran Emergence of OXA-Type Extended-Spectrum β-Lactamases Among <italic>Enterobacter cloacae </italic>Isolates Collected From Hospitals of Tehran, Karaj and Qazvin, Iran research-article research-article Conclusions

This study was the first report of the emergence of the plasmid-encoded blaOXA genes among E. cloacae isolates in Iran. These findings highlight the need to use appropriate infection control policy and rational antibiotic therapy to reduce further spread of these resistant bacteria in the studied hospitals.

Results

In total, 48 ESBL-producing isolates (58.5%) were positive for the blaOXA-1 gene. All blaOXA-1-producing isolates showed multidrug resistant pattern. In this study, blaOXA-2, blaOXA-9, and blaOXA-10 genes were not detected. The ERIC-PCR results showed that 42 OXA-producing isolates (77.7%) were genetically diverse with different band patterns.

Objectives

The main aim of the present study was to determine the frequency of blaOXA genes among ESBL-producing E. cloacae isolates in three distinct provinces of Iran.

Patients and Methods

A total of 82 non-repetitive ESBL-producing E. cloacae isolates were collected from hospitalized patient in Qazvin, Karaj, and Tehran hospitals, Iran. The isolates were identified by standard laboratory methods and then confirmed by API 20E strips. PCR and sequencing was performed for detection of blaOXA-1, blaOXA-2, blaOXA-9, and blaOXA-10 genes. The clonal relatedness of OXA-producing isolates was assessed by enterobacterial repetitive intergenic consensus PCR (ERIC-PCR).

Background

Extended-Spectrum β-Lactamases (ESBLs)-producing Enterobacter cloacae has been increasingly reported as a major clinical concern in recent years. TEM and SHV β-lactamase are the most common ESBL genotypes that are found in Enterobacteriaceae; however, there are also new families of ESBLs, including OXA-type enzymes, which are one of the most important mechanisms of resistance to oxyimino-cephalosporin antibiotics. OXA-type ESBLs are divided into five groups.

Conclusions

This study was the first report of the emergence of the plasmid-encoded blaOXA genes among E. cloacae isolates in Iran. These findings highlight the need to use appropriate infection control policy and rational antibiotic therapy to reduce further spread of these resistant bacteria in the studied hospitals.

Results

In total, 48 ESBL-producing isolates (58.5%) were positive for the blaOXA-1 gene. All blaOXA-1-producing isolates showed multidrug resistant pattern. In this study, blaOXA-2, blaOXA-9, and blaOXA-10 genes were not detected. The ERIC-PCR results showed that 42 OXA-producing isolates (77.7%) were genetically diverse with different band patterns.

Objectives

The main aim of the present study was to determine the frequency of blaOXA genes among ESBL-producing E. cloacae isolates in three distinct provinces of Iran.

Patients and Methods

A total of 82 non-repetitive ESBL-producing E. cloacae isolates were collected from hospitalized patient in Qazvin, Karaj, and Tehran hospitals, Iran. The isolates were identified by standard laboratory methods and then confirmed by API 20E strips. PCR and sequencing was performed for detection of blaOXA-1, blaOXA-2, blaOXA-9, and blaOXA-10 genes. The clonal relatedness of OXA-producing isolates was assessed by enterobacterial repetitive intergenic consensus PCR (ERIC-PCR).

Background

Extended-Spectrum β-Lactamases (ESBLs)-producing Enterobacter cloacae has been increasingly reported as a major clinical concern in recent years. TEM and SHV β-lactamase are the most common ESBL genotypes that are found in Enterobacteriaceae; however, there are also new families of ESBLs, including OXA-type enzymes, which are one of the most important mechanisms of resistance to oxyimino-cephalosporin antibiotics. OXA-type ESBLs are divided into five groups.

Enterobacter cloacae; Extended-Spectrum β-Lactamases; OXA-type β-Lactamase Enterobacter cloacae; Extended-Spectrum β-Lactamases; OXA-type β-Lactamase http://www.Biotech-health.com/index.php?page=article&article_id=22085 Amir Peymani Amir Peymani Cellular and Molecular Research Center, Qazvin University of Medical Sciences, Qazvin, IR Iran Cellular and Molecular Research Center, Qazvin University of Medical Sciences, Qazvin, IR Iran Taghi Naserpour Farivar Taghi Naserpour Farivar Cellular and Molecular Research Center, Qazvin University of Medical Sciences, Qazvin, IR Iran Cellular and Molecular Research Center, Qazvin University of Medical Sciences, Qazvin, IR Iran Mahdi Mohammadi Ghanbarlou Mahdi Mohammadi Ghanbarlou Cellular and Molecular Research Center, Qazvin University of Medical Sciences, Qazvin, IR Iran Cellular and Molecular Research Center, Qazvin University of Medical Sciences, Qazvin, IR Iran Marzieh Marandi Marzieh Marandi Cellular and Molecular Research Center, Qazvin University of Medical Sciences, Qazvin, IR Iran Cellular and Molecular Research Center, Qazvin University of Medical Sciences, Qazvin, IR Iran Mehdi Sahmani Mehdi Sahmani Cellular and Molecular Research Center, Qazvin University of Medical Sciences, Qazvin, IR Iran Cellular and Molecular Research Center, Qazvin University of Medical Sciences, Qazvin, IR Iran Reza Najafipour Reza Najafipour Cellular and Molecular Research Center, Qazvin University of Medical Sciences, Qazvin, IR Iran; Cellular and Molecular Research Center, Qazvin University of Medical Sciences, Qazvin, IR Iran. Tel/Fax: +98-2813324971 Cellular and Molecular Research Center, Qazvin University of Medical Sciences, Qazvin, IR Iran; Cellular and Molecular Research Center, Qazvin University of Medical Sciences, Qazvin, IR Iran. Tel/Fax: +98-2813324971
en 10.17795/bhs-22086 Pre-Exposure and Post-Exposure Prophylaxis of Crimean-Congo Hemorrhagic Fever Pre-Exposure and Post-Exposure Prophylaxis of Crimean-Congo Hemorrhagic Fever review-article review-article Context

Crimean-Congo hemorrhagic fever (CCHF) is a tick-borne viral disease with a mortality rate of 30% to 80% and reported from more than 30 countries in Asia, Africa, South-Eastern Europe, and the Middle East. It is a zoonotic viral disease and an important health problem. In endemic areas, livestock handlers, livestock market workers, skin processors, veterinary staff, farmers, and healthcare personnel are at risk. Clinical manifestations are non-specific. Diagnosis is based on clinical manifestations, epidemiologic factors, and laboratory tests. Here, we reviewed the routes of transmission, pre-exposure, and post-exposure prophylaxis to help the public health authorities for decreasing rate of the disease in the community.

Evidence Acquisition

Medical databases (PubMed, Scopus, and Embase) were searched from June 1985 to June 2014. Keywords, including CCHF, epidemiology, transmission, control, prophylaxis, and prevention routes were searched.

Results

CCHF is widely distributed in many countries of the world, including our country, Iran which is an endemic region. Infection has a wide distribution that correlates with a global distribution of Hyalomma tick (the vector responsible for viral transmission). Preventive measures are very important in lowering the incidence rate. Post-exposure prophylaxis should be considered for people exposed to CCHF virus, such as those who have mucous membrane contact or a percutaneous injury in contact with the secretions or blood of infected animal or patients.

Conclusions

CCHF is a fatal viral disease. Therefore, pre-exposure and post-exposure prophylaxis should be considered to decrease the infection rate. All strategies should be centralized on raising surveillance using standardized case finding and proper case management, reduction of infection in animals, and increasing laboratory capacity in at risk regions for CCHF.

Context

Crimean-Congo hemorrhagic fever (CCHF) is a tick-borne viral disease with a mortality rate of 30% to 80% and reported from more than 30 countries in Asia, Africa, South-Eastern Europe, and the Middle East. It is a zoonotic viral disease and an important health problem. In endemic areas, livestock handlers, livestock market workers, skin processors, veterinary staff, farmers, and healthcare personnel are at risk. Clinical manifestations are non-specific. Diagnosis is based on clinical manifestations, epidemiologic factors, and laboratory tests. Here, we reviewed the routes of transmission, pre-exposure, and post-exposure prophylaxis to help the public health authorities for decreasing rate of the disease in the community.

Evidence Acquisition

Medical databases (PubMed, Scopus, and Embase) were searched from June 1985 to June 2014. Keywords, including CCHF, epidemiology, transmission, control, prophylaxis, and prevention routes were searched.

Results

CCHF is widely distributed in many countries of the world, including our country, Iran which is an endemic region. Infection has a wide distribution that correlates with a global distribution of Hyalomma tick (the vector responsible for viral transmission). Preventive measures are very important in lowering the incidence rate. Post-exposure prophylaxis should be considered for people exposed to CCHF virus, such as those who have mucous membrane contact or a percutaneous injury in contact with the secretions or blood of infected animal or patients.

Conclusions

CCHF is a fatal viral disease. Therefore, pre-exposure and post-exposure prophylaxis should be considered to decrease the infection rate. All strategies should be centralized on raising surveillance using standardized case finding and proper case management, reduction of infection in animals, and increasing laboratory capacity in at risk regions for CCHF.

Prevention;Transmission;Chemoprevention Prevention;Transmission;Chemoprevention http://www.Biotech-health.com/index.php?page=article&article_id=22086 Batool Sharifi-Mood Batool Sharifi-Mood Infectious Disease and Tropical Medicine Research Center, Zahedan University of Medical Sciences, Zahedan, IR Iran; Infectious Diseases and Tropical Medicine Research Center, Zahedan University of Medical Sciences, Boo-Ali Hospital, Zahedan, IR Iran. Tel: +98-5413228101, Fax: +98-5413236722 Infectious Disease and Tropical Medicine Research Center, Zahedan University of Medical Sciences, Zahedan, IR Iran; Infectious Diseases and Tropical Medicine Research Center, Zahedan University of Medical Sciences, Boo-Ali Hospital, Zahedan, IR Iran. Tel: +98-5413228101, Fax: +98-5413236722 Maliheh Metanat Maliheh Metanat Infectious Disease and Tropical Medicine Research Center, Zahedan University of Medical Sciences, Zahedan, IR Iran Infectious Disease and Tropical Medicine Research Center, Zahedan University of Medical Sciences, Zahedan, IR Iran
en 10.17795/bhs-22087 Refractive Errors in School-age Children in Qazvin, Iran Refractive Errors in School-age Children in Qazvin, Iran research-article research-article Conclusions

Based on our study, the prevalence of myopia is more than other types of refractive error, which is similar to that reported in previous studies on other school-age populations in some Asian countries. The high prevalence of refractive error among school-age children indicated that untreated refractive error is one of the most common public health problems.

Patients and Methods

In this cross-sectional study, 11821 students (aged 7 to 18 years) were recruited from different schools. Emmetropia was defined as refractive status between +0.25 and -0.25 D sphere. A -0.50 D or greater spherical considered as myopia, -6.00 D or more as high myopia, and +0.50 D or more as hyperopia, and a cylinder refraction greater than 0.75 D was defined as astigmatism. Visual acuity and refraction of all students were tested. Anterior and posterior segment examination and ocular motility evaluation were also performed to rule out the pathological causes of visual impairments.

Results

The study was performed on 5641 (47.72%) male and 6180 (52.28%) female students. The prevalence of myopia (from 32.96% at the age of 7 to 79.02% at the age of 18 years) significantly increased (P < 0.001), and hyperopia significantly decreased (from 47.07% in 7-year- old individuals to 8.32% in 18-year- old subjects) with age (P < 0.001). There were significant differences in refractive errors between males and females. Hyperopia and myopia was more common among female in comparison to males (P < 0.001). Astigmatism greater than 0.75 D in one or both eyes was found in 990 children (8.37%). Astigmatism increased from 6.04% in 7-year-old students to 9.86% in 15-year-old-students e and then no more difference was found in age group ranged from 15 to 18 years.

Background

Refractive error remains one of the primary causes of visual impairment among school children all over the world, and its prevalence varies widely.

Objectives

The present study was aimed to determine the prevalence of refractive errors in school children aged 7 to 18 years in Qazvin, Iran.

Conclusions

Based on our study, the prevalence of myopia is more than other types of refractive error, which is similar to that reported in previous studies on other school-age populations in some Asian countries. The high prevalence of refractive error among school-age children indicated that untreated refractive error is one of the most common public health problems.

Patients and Methods

In this cross-sectional study, 11821 students (aged 7 to 18 years) were recruited from different schools. Emmetropia was defined as refractive status between +0.25 and -0.25 D sphere. A -0.50 D or greater spherical considered as myopia, -6.00 D or more as high myopia, and +0.50 D or more as hyperopia, and a cylinder refraction greater than 0.75 D was defined as astigmatism. Visual acuity and refraction of all students were tested. Anterior and posterior segment examination and ocular motility evaluation were also performed to rule out the pathological causes of visual impairments.

Results

The study was performed on 5641 (47.72%) male and 6180 (52.28%) female students. The prevalence of myopia (from 32.96% at the age of 7 to 79.02% at the age of 18 years) significantly increased (P < 0.001), and hyperopia significantly decreased (from 47.07% in 7-year- old individuals to 8.32% in 18-year- old subjects) with age (P < 0.001). There were significant differences in refractive errors between males and females. Hyperopia and myopia was more common among female in comparison to males (P < 0.001). Astigmatism greater than 0.75 D in one or both eyes was found in 990 children (8.37%). Astigmatism increased from 6.04% in 7-year-old students to 9.86% in 15-year-old-students e and then no more difference was found in age group ranged from 15 to 18 years.

Background

Refractive error remains one of the primary causes of visual impairment among school children all over the world, and its prevalence varies widely.

Objectives

The present study was aimed to determine the prevalence of refractive errors in school children aged 7 to 18 years in Qazvin, Iran.

Refractive Error;Myopia, Hyperopia;School children;Age;Sex Refractive Error;Myopia, Hyperopia;School children;Age;Sex http://www.Biotech-health.com/index.php?page=article&article_id=22087 Mohammad Khalaj Mohammad Khalaj Department of Public Health, Qazvin University of Medical Sciences, Qazvin, IR Iran; Department of Public Health, Qazvin University of Medical Sciences, Qazvin, IR Iran. Tel: +98-2833669585, Fax: +98-2833345862 Department of Public Health, Qazvin University of Medical Sciences, Qazvin, IR Iran; Department of Public Health, Qazvin University of Medical Sciences, Qazvin, IR Iran. Tel: +98-2833669585, Fax: +98-2833345862 Mohammad Aghazadeh Amiri Mohammad Aghazadeh Amiri Department of Optometry, Shahid Beheshti University of Medical Sciences, Tehran, IR Iran Department of Optometry, Shahid Beheshti University of Medical Sciences, Tehran, IR Iran Isa Mohammadi Zeidi Isa Mohammadi Zeidi Department of Public Health, Qazvin University of Medical Sciences, Qazvin, IR Iran Department of Public Health, Qazvin University of Medical Sciences, Qazvin, IR Iran Bahram Khosravi Bahram Khosravi Department of Optometry, Shahid Beheshti University of Medical Sciences, Tehran, IR Iran Department of Optometry, Shahid Beheshti University of Medical Sciences, Tehran, IR Iran Mohadeseh Mohammadi Nia Mohadeseh Mohammadi Nia Department of Optometry, Shahid Beheshti University of Medical Sciences, Tehran, IR Iran Department of Optometry, Shahid Beheshti University of Medical Sciences, Tehran, IR Iran Ahmad Keshtkar Ahmad Keshtkar Department of Medical Physics, Medical Faculty, Tabriz University of Medical Sciences, Tabriz, IR Iran Department of Medical Physics, Medical Faculty, Tabriz University of Medical Sciences, Tabriz, IR Iran
en 10.17795/bhs-22185 Bactericidal Effects of a Prosthesis Cleaning Tablet Bactericidal Effects of a Prosthesis Cleaning Tablet research-article research-article Background

Hygiene and maintenance of removable prostheses are very important for the oral health. Elderly patients are not capable of this affair since they might have diseases in addition to being old; thus, they require new alternative methods.

Objectives

The purpose of this study was to compare the disinfecting effects of three substances, water, normal saline and denture cleaning tablets Corega that patients commonly use as denture cleaning, against oral bacterial infections.

Patients and Methods

In this study, complete maxillary dentures of 138 elderly individuals living in a nursing home (46 females and 92 males) with a mean age of 9 ± 75 years were studied. Their prostheses were soaked for 15 minutes randomly into one of the following substances: water, normal saline, or a solution containing denture cleaning tablets (Corega). Before and after this operation, samples were obtained by a third person using microbiological studies swabs. The samples were cultured and the colony forming units (CFU) were obtained. Data were evaluated by one-way ANOVA test.

Results

Statistically, Corega reduced bacterial infections significantly more than water and normal saline (P = 0.0001). Water and normal saline had equal effects on reducing CFU.

Conclusions

Denture cleaning tablet, Corega, is recommended for cleaning the prostheses, but using water or saline alone is not recommended.

Background

Hygiene and maintenance of removable prostheses are very important for the oral health. Elderly patients are not capable of this affair since they might have diseases in addition to being old; thus, they require new alternative methods.

Objectives

The purpose of this study was to compare the disinfecting effects of three substances, water, normal saline and denture cleaning tablets Corega that patients commonly use as denture cleaning, against oral bacterial infections.

Patients and Methods

In this study, complete maxillary dentures of 138 elderly individuals living in a nursing home (46 females and 92 males) with a mean age of 9 ± 75 years were studied. Their prostheses were soaked for 15 minutes randomly into one of the following substances: water, normal saline, or a solution containing denture cleaning tablets (Corega). Before and after this operation, samples were obtained by a third person using microbiological studies swabs. The samples were cultured and the colony forming units (CFU) were obtained. Data were evaluated by one-way ANOVA test.

Results

Statistically, Corega reduced bacterial infections significantly more than water and normal saline (P = 0.0001). Water and normal saline had equal effects on reducing CFU.

Conclusions

Denture cleaning tablet, Corega, is recommended for cleaning the prostheses, but using water or saline alone is not recommended.

Oral Hygiene;Denture Cleansers;Bacterial Infection Oral Hygiene;Denture Cleansers;Bacterial Infection http://www.Biotech-health.com/index.php?page=article&article_id=22185 Shima Aalaei Shima Aalaei Dental Caries Prevention Research Center ,Qazvin University of Medical Science, Qazvin, IR Iran Dental Caries Prevention Research Center ,Qazvin University of Medical Science, Qazvin, IR Iran Seied Mohamad Ebrahim Moosavi Sajad Seied Mohamad Ebrahim Moosavi Sajad Department of Prosthodontics, School of Dentistry, Qazvin University of Medical Sciences, Qazvin, IR Iran Department of Prosthodontics, School of Dentistry, Qazvin University of Medical Sciences, Qazvin, IR Iran Masood Sharifi Masood Sharifi Department of Microbiology, Qazvin University of Medical Sciences, Qazvin, IR Iran Department of Microbiology, Qazvin University of Medical Sciences, Qazvin, IR Iran Farhad Zekri Farhad Zekri Faculty of Dentistry, Dental Branch, Islamic Azad University, Tehran, IR Iran Faculty of Dentistry, Dental Branch, Islamic Azad University, Tehran, IR Iran Fatemeh Nematollahi Fatemeh Nematollahi Department of Prosthodontics, Dental Branch, Islamic Azad University, Tehran, IR Iran; Department of Prosthodontics, Dental Branch, Islamic Azad University, Tehran, IR Iran. Tel: +98-2122542740 Department of Prosthodontics, Dental Branch, Islamic Azad University, Tehran, IR Iran; Department of Prosthodontics, Dental Branch, Islamic Azad University, Tehran, IR Iran. Tel: +98-2122542740
en 10.17795/bhs-22242 Inhibitory Effects of Quercetin and Kaempferol as two Propolis Derived Flavonoids on Tyrosinase Enzyme Inhibitory Effects of Quercetin and Kaempferol as two Propolis Derived Flavonoids on Tyrosinase Enzyme research-article research-article Background

Tyrosinase is a copper-containing enzyme, which is widely distributed in microorganisms, animals and plants. It is also a key enzyme in melanin biosynthesis, which plays a crucial role in determining the color of mammalian skin and hair. In addition, unfavorable enzymatic browning of plant-derived foods by tyrosinase causes a decrease in nutritional quality and economic loss of food products.

Objectives

In the present study the activity of this enzyme was examined against quersetin and kaempferol as two potentially flavonoid inhibitors.

Materials and Methods

In this work, the effects of quercetin and kaempferol as propolis-derived compounds on activity of mushroom tyrosinase (MT) were studied. These flavonoids showed inhibitory activity on catecholase and cresolase reactions in presence of caffeic acid and p-comaric acid, respectively. The inhibition mode of quercetin and kaempferol were competitive towards both catecholase and cresolase activities of the enzyme.

Results

The inhibition constants (Ki) were determined as 0.072 and 0.112 mM for catecholase activity, and 0.016 and 0.06 mM for cresolase activity, respectively.

Conclusions

In general, quercetin and kaempferol can be used as good candidates in melanogenesis inhibition. Moreover they should be considered as good blockers of enzyme activity in hyper pigmentation and clinical application.

Background

Tyrosinase is a copper-containing enzyme, which is widely distributed in microorganisms, animals and plants. It is also a key enzyme in melanin biosynthesis, which plays a crucial role in determining the color of mammalian skin and hair. In addition, unfavorable enzymatic browning of plant-derived foods by tyrosinase causes a decrease in nutritional quality and economic loss of food products.

Objectives

In the present study the activity of this enzyme was examined against quersetin and kaempferol as two potentially flavonoid inhibitors.

Materials and Methods

In this work, the effects of quercetin and kaempferol as propolis-derived compounds on activity of mushroom tyrosinase (MT) were studied. These flavonoids showed inhibitory activity on catecholase and cresolase reactions in presence of caffeic acid and p-comaric acid, respectively. The inhibition mode of quercetin and kaempferol were competitive towards both catecholase and cresolase activities of the enzyme.

Results

The inhibition constants (Ki) were determined as 0.072 and 0.112 mM for catecholase activity, and 0.016 and 0.06 mM for cresolase activity, respectively.

Conclusions

In general, quercetin and kaempferol can be used as good candidates in melanogenesis inhibition. Moreover they should be considered as good blockers of enzyme activity in hyper pigmentation and clinical application.

Motor Activity;Quercetin;Kaempferol Motor Activity;Quercetin;Kaempferol http://www.Biotech-health.com/index.php?page=article&article_id=22242 Negar Taherkhani Negar Taherkhani Faculty of Basic Sciences, Islamic Azad University of Science and Research, Tehran, IR Iran Faculty of Basic Sciences, Islamic Azad University of Science and Research, Tehran, IR Iran Nematollah Gheibi Nematollah Gheibi Cellular and Molecular Research Center, Department of Biophysics, Qazvin University of Medical Sciences, Qazvin, IR Iran; Cellular and Molecular Research Center, Department of Biophysics, Qazvin University of Medical Sciences, Qazvin, IR Iran. Tel: +98-9122302634 Cellular and Molecular Research Center, Department of Biophysics, Qazvin University of Medical Sciences, Qazvin, IR Iran; Cellular and Molecular Research Center, Department of Biophysics, Qazvin University of Medical Sciences, Qazvin, IR Iran. Tel: +98-9122302634